Conifer Encroachment Resources

There are a number of useful references that address the ecological and policy aspects of the conifer encroachment issue. Several UCANR publications are also currently under development.


Valachovic, Y., Quinn-Davidson, L., and Standiford, R. Can the California Forest Practice Rules Adapt to Addres Conifer Encroachment? In: Proceedings of the 7th California Oak Symposium: Managing Oak Woodlands in a Dynamic World. Gen. Tech. Report. PSW-GTR-251. Albany, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. p. 515-520. Full Text

Selected ecology papers

Cocking, M. I., Varner, J. M., and Sherriff, R. L. 2012. California black oak responses to fire severity and native conifer encroachment in the Klamath Mountains. Forest Ecology and Management, 270: 25-34.

Cocking, Matthew I., J. Morgan Varner, and Eric E. Knapp. “Long-term effects of fire severity on oak-conifer dynamics in the southern Cascades.”Ecological Applications 24.1 (2014): 94-107. Full Text

Devine, W. D., and C. A. Harrington. 2006. Changes in Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana Dougl. Ex Hook.) following release from overtopping conifers. Trees, 20: 747-756. Full Text

Devine, W. D., C. A. Harrington, and D. H. Peter. 2007. Oak woodland restoration: understory response to removal of encroaching conifers. Ecological Restoration, 25: 247-255. Full Text

Devine, W.D. and C.A. Harrington. 2013. Restoration release of overtopped Oregon white oak increases 10-year growth and acorn production. Forest Ecology and Management, 291: 87-95. Full Text

Engber, E.A., Varner, J.M., Arguello, L.A, Sugihara, N.G. 2011. The effects of conifer encroachment and overstory structure on fuels and fire in an oak woodland landscape. Fire Ecology, 7: 32-50. Full Text

Engber, E. A., and J.M. Varner. 2012. Predicting Douglas-fir Sapling Mortality Following Prescribed Fire in an Encroached Grassland. Restoration Ecology 20(6): 665-668. Full Text

Foster, J. R., and S. E. Schaff. 2003. Forest colonization of Puget Lowland grasslands at Fort Lewis, Washington. Northwest Science, 77: 283-296.

Gilligan, L. A. and P. S. Muir. 2011. Stand structures of Oregon white oak woodlands, regeneration, and their relationships to the environment in Southwestern Oregon. Northwest Science, 85: 141-158.

Livingston, A. 2014. Plant community responses to fire exclusion, species invasions, and restoration in California woodlands and grasslands. Humboldt State University Master’s Thesis. Arcata, CA

Regan, A. C., and J. K. Agee. 2004. Oak community and seedling response to fire at Fort Lewis, Washington. Northwest Science, 78: 1-11.

Schriver, M. R. 2015.  Stand and tree growth characteristics of Quercus garryana and Quercus kelloggiiwoodlands in northwestern California. Humboldt State University Master’s Thesis. Arcata, CA.

Sugihara, N. G., and L. J. Reed. 1987. Vegetation ecology of the Bald Hills Oak Woodlands of Redwood National Park. Redwood National Park Research and Development, Technical Report 21.

Thysell, D. R., and A. B. Carey. 2001. Quercus garryana communities in the Puget Trough, Washington. Northwest Science, 75: 219-235.